The port of Gwadar is located on the coast of Makran in province Balochistan and was first acquired by Omanis in 1784 when its leader Nasser Khan Qalat ceded the region to Sultan bin Ahmed, who declared the throne of Oman at the time without success and who started using Gwadar Pakistan as a basis for arrests on the Arab coast facing him, and then finished the process of joining Gwadar to Amman after his possession of the chief authority in his country in 1792.
For most of its history, Gwadar Pakistan has consisted of a small fishing society. In 1863, Khan Qalat tried to re-annex Gwadar Baluchistan to his khanate, the territories under his command, and to end the special status of this Omani province on the coast of Balochistan Pakistan. Still, the British declined to support him in his request. Both the Khan and the Government of India established other offers between 1895 and 1904 to buy Gwadar Pakistan from the Omanis, but no settlement was reached.
OIL AND REBELS
The conflict continued during the 20th century, and British official files contain multiple records related to sovereignty and demarcation of the border between the two regions. The conflict became increasingly prominent in 1914 for both the few and the British when the Burma Oil Company began to look for the chance of oil within the Gyader border, resulting in a potential economic zone value for all parties concerned. The British initially thought that Sultan Timur bin Faisal would be “completely against to abandoning Gwadar,”but the Sultan was said to have stated in a telegram sent on April 19 that he would “cede to the British government Gwadar or Dhofar” in replacement for military assistance against the rebels.
POLITICAL NEGOTIATIONS WITH A GULF GOVERNOR
The issue response in 1939 in negotiations between Political Agent the Briton in Muscat, Captain Tom Hickinbotham, and the Sultan Said Ben Timur. The Sultan indicated that he was seeking to regain full control of Oman from the Nzoi-based imamate. He could not achieve full development in his country because of a lack of funds and then offered to cede Gwadar to the Government of India in trade for financial assistance.
Heckenbotham suggested in the statement he sent to Political Resident Bushehr has three potential courses of development:
- Making a notable financial contribution to the Sultan in trade for Gwadar Pakistan.
- Refusing to grant any additional financial assistance at all.
- Imposing full control over Muscat and Oman.
The first option meant giving the Sultan “a huge amount of money and very little in return”, as well as not guaranteeing a long-term solution.
Hickinbotham preferred to take control of Oman, install a British garrison there, and leave the Sultan in his position as honorary governor. The resident replied that he doubted whether the Sultan would continue the sale of Gwadar if he received a financial donation, as the sale would be “very abhorrent to him.” However, further discussions took place later that year.
In our view, the papers highlight the attempts of a Gulf governor to negotiate political and financial advantages through diplomatic contacts with representatives of the British Government and the British’ assessment of whether it is in their interest to achieve direct control over more land in the region.
INDIA’S INDEPENDENCE AND THE END OF THE CONFLICT
The issue of the transfer of The Guader property to Qalat was raised again after World War II, as the British continued to be keen to resolve the conflict. However, he pointed out Political Resident In Bushehr in a 1948 letter. He considered Sultan Said bin Timur’s retention of Gwadar “a kind of anachronism”, but the Sultan was the kind of king who ” often “often clings to every inch of their land”. Therefore it is out of the question to consider abandoning Gwadar. The only solution would be by reviving the Sultan’s proposal, which he submitted in 1939, and granting him funds in exchange for the waiver of Gwadar.
The British role in this matter ended in 1947 when India gained its independence. The Omani Gwadar case was finally resolved in 1958 when Sultan Saeed bin Timur sold the province to Pakistan for $3 million. Meanwhile, the region was still somewhat insignificant.
However, in the 1990s, the Pakistani government decided to take advantage of Gwadar’s strategic potential by developing it as a critical deep-sea port linked to the country’s road and rail infrastructure. Gwadar has since received significant Chinese investment. Thus, although Sultan Saeed made an excellent deal by holding out until 1958, Gwadar’s ownership seems to be becoming increasingly important today.
Gwadar has been a province of Muscat and Oman for approximately 200 years. Still, studies indicate that although the sultans denied it, they lost the Government over the province but were open to discussions with the British.
For now Gwadar is established in development with Gwadar housing Scheme and more and more business holders have keen interest to invest in Bin Qaim City and other Gwadar investment projects because it is located near Gwadar Port and easy access from the Gwadar International Airport.